It seems to me that he's distinguishing between two kinds of education. He calls them "expert men" and "those that are learned." Today we would say something like "trained in a vocation" or "having a liberal arts education."
His point is that people trained to be experts in a field (vocation) are well equipped to do things and to give opinions about very specific points related to their vocation. But if you're looking for a more comprehensive view, an overview suitable for national politics ("the plots and marshaling of affairs"), for example, it's better to consult those with a broader education.
"Learned" in Bacon's day would have meant someone schooled in ancient languages and history. I think he's simply saying that men having that kind of training are better suited for politics than those trained (for example) as blacksmiths.
Let's break it down- For expert men can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; (men with experience in a given field can do those things in that given field) but the general counsels. and the plots of marshaling of affairs,( the giving of advice and the rulings of government) come best from those that are learned. ( Those who are educated in affairs of state, rule. Those with experience carry out the rulings.)
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