That would depend on the learning disability. Children have different learning styles and an effective education program would take advantage of that to help them succeed not just survive. Try reading _A Mind At A Time_ by Mel Levine, M.D. My son is autistic and has a program based on Applied Behavioral Analysis/positive behavioral modification. His first issue had been just being able to LOOK at his teacher, sit still, pay attention. He's come along way but even now something as simple as a morning routine in school has to be broken down into simple steps until he's mastered all of them. The ABBLS program helps his teachers pin point what the pre-cursor skills he needs to even begin learning. Because his expressive language (being able to tell us what he wants) is lagging so far behind his receptive language (understanding what people are saying) we use a Picture Exchange Communication System both at home and school so he's able to understand more complex receptive language coming at him AND be able to communicate his needs. Reducing a lot of his frustration!
My daughter is a very visual learner. Complex auditory directions right now go flying over her head. Her teachers use heavy visual supports throughout her curriculum. She'll eventually develop to be able to learn other ways as they introduce those one by one. But for now this is what works very, very well for her. The book above doesn't necessarily tackle things like autism and mental retardation (I think) but its a good start and helps understand learning patterns that would apply well even to those with a learning disability. Specific techniques for learning disabilities would mean researching. Not enough space here to cover that because there are so many! Fortunately the net has many resources. Pinpoint the disability, break it down to steps if you have to (often you will). Find out exactly the methods other educators/researcgers have used to positive effect. Learn it and apply. A good start to understand processing and how specific deficits affect people is _The User's Guide to the Brain: Perception, Attention and the Four Theaters of the Brain_ by John Ratey, M.D. Its neuroscience but don't let that scare you. The writing is very accessible to the "man-on-the-street." And